A new methodology is used in this paper, for the optimal tuning of Photovoltaic (PV) by integrating the hybrid Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms is proposed. The suggested hybrid MPPT algorithms can raise the performance of PV systems under partial shade conditions. It attempts to address the primary research issues in partial shading conditions in PV systems caused by clouds, trees, dirt, and dust. The proposed system computes MPPT utilizing an innovative adaptive model-based approach. In order to manage the input voltage at the Maximum PowerPoint, the MPPT algorithm changes the duty cycle of the switch in the DC-DC (Direct Current-Direct Current) converter (MPP). Temperature as well as fluctuations in output power will induce alteration in PV panel operating current and voltage. MPPT is gaining a lot of interest as a key optimization sector to solve this optimization problem in PV systems. A hybrid optimization approach is utilized to produce a combination of the Cuckoo Search-Perturb & Observe (CS-PO) and incremental conductance-particle swarm optimization (IC-PSO) algorithms. After measuring the voltage and current from the solar system, this optimization computes the output power. The IC-PSO optimization achieves Maximum PowerPoint Tracking with increased efficiency of 99.5%. The proposed optimization techniques are established in the MATLAB Simulink program to validate its efficiency.

To address air pollution in the environment caused by Carbon dioxide (CO_{2}) emissions, renewable energy is used to generate electricity as an alternate source. Due to its enormous availability and inexhaustibility, photovoltaic solar power has become one of the most popular renewable energy sources [

Hill climbing (HC), perturb and observation (P&O) and incremental conductance (IC) are the examples of traditional MPPT techniques that were reviewed and improved. P&O is the most pretentious of all MPPTs displaying firm merging to the maximum power point (MPP) [

The following is a breakdown of the paper’s structure. The present scheme is briefly established in Section 2, followed by modeling of the PV array in Section 3. The paper’s recommended algorithms are explained in Section 4. The findings of the conventional system are discussed in Section 5. At last, in Section 6, the conclusion is offered.

The block diagram of the proposed system is shown in

A photovoltaic (PV) array is a group of solar panels that are linked electrically to make a big PV installation (PV system). Semiconductor materials like silicon is used to construct PV cells. Because a single PV cell’s output voltage/current is so low, many cells are coupled to increase the output voltage/current. Electrons are unscrewed from the atoms in the semiconductor material when light energy hits the solar cell. Solar energy will be transformed into direct current (DC) power using photovoltaic panels and cells. Solar panels in single PV are connected in the same manner as PV cells in single panel. Although in some instances, a series connection is used to enhance the output voltage. Electrical connections between panels in an array can be made in series, parallel or a combination of the two.

When electrical conductors are connected to the positive and negative sides of an electrical circuit, electrons are collected in the form of an electric current. This electricity serves as a source of load power. A single module’s energy output is inadequate to meet the needs. An inverter converts DC electricity into alternating current, which powers the motor, loads, or lights in a PV array. A PV array’s single module is connected in series to achieve greater voltages before being linked in parallel to increase the system’s current value.

Efficiency of PV cell: The effectiveness of a photovoltaic cell is defined as the ratio of peak solar power to solar power intake. It is given by,_{pp} – Voltage at apex power.

I_{pp} – Current at apex power.

I_{s} – Intensity of solar.

A_{1} – Area on which solar radiation falls.

The efficiency of a PV system can be enhanced by using several MPPT methods to track the system’s maximum power under various environmental conditions.

A DC-DC converter connects the PV module to the load, converting the uncontrolled DC input into a controlled DC output at a predetermined voltage level. These converters’ efficiency ranges from 88.20% to 96.550%. To step up the voltage to the higher level required by the load, the suggested methodology employs a boost converter. This might be done by storing the energy in an inductor and then delivering it at a higher voltage to the load.

Because the solar PV module’s efficiency is around 13%, it is best to run it at full power so that the greatest amount of electricity is delivered to the load regardless of temperature or insolation. A maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is a device that gathers and delivers the maximum power from a solar PV module to a load. Maximum power point tracking is a technique for maximizing the output of one or more solar panels (MPPT). The source’s load impedance is modified and regulated at peak power, allowing the required power to be transmitted. A dc/dc converter is put between the load and the solar PV module to reach the best PowerPoint. The duty cycle of the converter is modified until the peak power point is reached.

The inverter is a piece of electronic equipment that converts DC electricity from a converter to AC power for grid use. Three single-phase semiconductor switches make up the three-phase inverter. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) pulse generators offer the pulses to these switches. It works by changing the duty cycle of a square wave while keeping the period constant.

PV modules are made up of PV cells that are connected in series or parallel to build PV arrays, which is shown in

The solar cell’s voltage current characteristic equation is

Here, I_{p} – Photo current

I_{sc} – Short circuit current

T_{p} – Operating temperature

I_{r} – Solar irradiance

Reverse saturation current of module (I_{rs}) is given by^{−19}C)

V_{oc} is open circuit voltage

M_{s} is no of cells connected in series

r is ideality factor of diode

k is Boltzmann’s constant (

The saturation current of the module varies with the cell’s temperature. The equation encapsulates it_{r} is normal temperature = 298.15 K

E_{go} is energy band gap of semiconductor

The PV module’s output current is given by

M_{p} is the no of PV modules connected in series.

R_{s} is the resistance in series.

R_{sh} is the resistance in shunt.

P_{t} is the thermal voltage of diode (V).

Among various algorithms that are used to optimize the output of PV array, proposed method uses following hybrid algorithms

Perturb and Observe algorithm (PO) and Cuckoo Search Optimization (CS)

Incremental Conductance (IC) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)

The objective function used for optimization is

Terms of speed and precision, the P&O (Perturb and Observe Algorithm) is one of the most common algorithms for monitoring the MPPT of PV systems. Changing the PV voltage (VPV) and monitoring the change in PV power is how the standard P&O algorithm [

The CS algorithm is according to cuckoo bird reproductive behaviour. Cuckoos are parasitic birds that lay their eggs in other birds’ nests instead of building their own. This strategy is according to the natural effectiveness of the cuckoo [

At greatest power, the slope of the PV characteristics in INC is 0, and there is no theoretically perturbation when the MPP is obtained. As a result, oscillations are reduced [

The combined flowchart of proposed hybrid Incremental conductance and Particle swarm optimization algorithm is shown in

Using these proposed algorithms, voltage, the PV system’s current and power are calculated to estimate the system’s efficiency.

The proposed PV grid-connected inverter consists of a PV array of 10 kW followed by two-level inverter; a DC-link capacitor is inserted between them for coupling. In MATLAB software, simulations are conducted on Hybrid MPPT algorithm of photovoltaic system in order to validate the proposed method.

To ensure that the circuit comparison can be established precisely, all buck and boost converter simulation data has been documented. The primary comparisons to take into account are input and output voltages, current, and power. Based on the literature, the circuit’s complexity and simplicity have been determined. A step can alter in insolation is supplied at a simulation time of 0.01 s by increasing insolation from 500 W/m^{2} to 1000 W/m^{2} at a fixed ambient temperature of 65°C to test the converter’s durability. This MATLAB simulation model shows the DC-DC boost converter, single phase grid tie inverter, PV module, PSO-IC and PO-CS MPTT algorithm. By adjusting insolation from 500 W/m^{2} to 1000 W/m^{2} at a fixed ambient temperature of 65°C, a step change in insolation is delivered at a simulation time of 0.01 s to test the converter’s durability.

The PV array system’s specification and parameters are shown in

Specification | Parameter values |
---|---|

Maximum power | 250 W |

Maximum voltage | 30 V |

Maximum current | 8 A |

Open circuit voltage | 36 _{oc} |

Short circuit current | 9 _{sc} |

Temperature co-efficient | 65°C |

A PV array made up of parallel strings of PV modules is implemented. Each string is made up of a succession of modules. Signals should be sent from voltage blocks with the required voltage. If voltage visibility is grid, then go to voltage tag Visibility block must be used to define the visibility of the input voltage tag.

In

In

In

The MPPT controller based on IC-PSO calculates the correct current and Voltage (V_{oc}) accordingly, corresponding to maximum power point till t = 0.01 s, the point at which shading occurs. The PV suddenly lowers from its optimal value when abrupt shift of operating current by shade occurs. The MPPT algorithm which is based on the IC-PSO method will be re-initialized. With pin point accuracy, the MPPT controller calculates the global new current corresponds to the Maximum Power Point (MPPT). Furthermore, the DC outcome of the power waveform is nearly identical to the output power waveform. Performance analysis of current, voltage and power waveform is shown in

According to the findings, the study made considerable improvements in convergence speed and tracking accuracy, as well as a significant reduction for rapidly shifting weather conditions, the rate of overshoot and the number of oscillations. The system’s overall performance is also boosted.

Parameters | IC-PSO method | CS-P&O method | Improvement values |
---|---|---|---|

Overshoot | 2.7 V | 1.5 V | 1.2 V |

Convergence speed | 6.0–6.3 (S) | 6.0–6.2 (S) | 0.1 (S) |

Efficiency | 99.5% | 99% | 0.5% |

Number of oscillations | High | Low | – |

Tracking accuracy | Low | High | – |

Due to the frequent shifting of the duty cycle with each step in the traditional MPP (Maximum Power Point) method, there is a lot of fluctuation in the power curve of SPV. However, after each iteration, the IC-PSO algorithm produces a steady duty cycle with minimal changes in the power curve of SPV, as shown in ^{2} as shown in

First search location in each iteration cycle is explored by CS-P&O (Cuckoo Search-Perturb and observe) optimization algorithm and then by domain IC-PSO (Incremental Conductance-Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm. The simulation outcomes are compared to indicate that the benefits of this CS-P&O (Cuckoo Search-Perturb and Observe) optimization are excellent accuracy in diverse optimization techniques, good convergence, and low performance. Propose the IC-PSO (Incremental Conductance-Particle Swarm Optimization) algorithm technique for higher performance.

Name of method | Peak power | Peak voltage | Peak current | Iteration time |
---|---|---|---|---|

IC-PSO | 650 W | 180 V | 3.3 A | 0.01 s |

CS-P&O | 600 W | 160 V | 3.5 A | 0.01 s |

To analyze a PV system’s peak power point when it is partially shaded, an IC-PSO and CS-P&O approach is used in this study. As an MPP tracker, a grid-connected PV system was evaluated using a MATLAB Simulink-designed boost converter. A MPPT algorithm according to the IC-PSO and CS-PO algorithms were presented with the goal of boosting the efficiency of PV generation. By altering the duty cycle of the switching in the Converter, the Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm manages the input voltage at the Maximum power point (MPP). The findings demonstrate that the IC-PSO algorithm beats the other optimization approaches. The simulation results show how much this optimization approach performs in terms of current, voltage, and power. The proposed of IC-PSO optimizations achieved maximum power point tracking with 99.5% increased efficiency. The proposed optimization techniques have been implemented in the MATLAB Simulation Project to verify its effectiveness.

The authors would like to thank Anna University and also we like to thank Anonymous reviewers for their so-called insights.