Electricity can be generated from a photovoltaic cell depending on the amount of solar radiation received from the solar system. But due to some factors such as partial shade conditions, as the thickness of the shade increases, the peak power output from the solar photovoltaic system decreases. Photovoltaic cells can be connected in parallel and in series to generate the required voltage and power. Peak power can be obtained even under shade conditions using the appropriate configuration of solar cells. A novel configuration as Total Cross Tied-Inverted Triangle View (TCT-ITV) is developed in the research by augmenting the Total Cross Tied configuration with Inverted Triangle configuration. The above system is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK and the performance of the system is extensively studied. Experiments have been performed under a different shading structure with the proposed TCT-ITV and compared with the existing topologies available in the literatures such as S, SP and TCT configuration, SuDoKu, magic square view topologies. It is evident from the results that the generated power using the proposed configuration increases by 7.89%, thus proving to be more efficient than the existing schemes. It can be claimed that the proposed topology performs better under large wide shaded conditions and hence used in various applications.

Conventional source of energy on the basis of petroleum, charcoal, and gasoline have shown to be vastly efficient factors of economical growth [

The major concern in utilizing solar resources is its non-uniform properties, which varies with temperature and solar irradiation [

The partial shading creates losses in power output. Various arrangements like series array, parallel array, series parallel (SP) array, TCT array, bridge-linked (BL) array, honey–comb (HC) array are comparable for their losses, cause of shunt resistance, peak power, bypass diodes and also for different sizes of panels beneath partial shading. It is noticed that the TCT configuration prevails all configurations by generating highest 4% rise in the solar panel power production [

The major contributions of the proposed research work are listed below,

To enhance the power efficiency and peak power can also be obtained even under shading conditions using appropriate configuration of solar cells. The Total Cross Tied configuration with Inverted Triangle View (TCT-ITV) technique is proposed. Total Cross Tied (TCT) configuration is a commonly used now-a-days because it provides maximum power even under shaded condition [

In the proposed system, TCT-ITV configuration is proposed to regulate the location of PV cells and to increase the solar energy production beneath diverse PSCs by simulating 9 × 9 PV cell.

Beneath Partial shading conditions, the projected configuration ITV increment the allocation of shaded collision over the solar PV array system. The solar cells [

The performance of the system had been evaluated and the results were presented. The highlights of the proposed research are displayed systematically as follows:

Segment 2 describes the equivalent circuit of PV cell, its parameters and various connections established in solar PV module and its electric characteristics. Segment 3 describes the parameters used in solar PV module. Segment 4 displays the proposed method, its modeling and technique employed for partial shading. Segment 5 displays the simulation results, discussions and comparisons. Segment 6 provides the conclusion of the paper.

PV modules use the solar light energy to generate electricity using PV effect. The PV cell generates direct electrical power from sun that can be used as energy devices or for charging purposes.

Like a corresponding device-based structure is mostly employed for MPPT techniques. The corresponding structure of the common device comprise of a photon current, a diode, a resistance which is connected in parallel exhibiting a leakage current, resistance connected in series defining an interior resistor to the flow of electrons, is expressed in

The V-I characteristics equation of a PV cell is given by

where,

I_{ph} is a current produced by light,

I_{s} is the current of cell saturation,

_{C} = operating temperature of a cell,

_{sh} = shunt resistor, R_{s} = series resistor

The photo electric current mostly based on the PV irradiance and operating temperature of a cell,

where,

_{sc} = short circuit current of a cell at 25°C, 1 kW/m^{2}

_{I} = temperature coefficient of short circuit current of a cell

_{Ref} = reference temperature of a cell

To produce higher voltages and currents, the cells are linked in series and parallel arrangement. Manufacturing, material, compositional requirement constraints limit the quantity of cells that can be combined in these designs. On the other hand, a pure parallel PV configuration has group of single solar cells tied up horizontally and several such strings are connected in parallel forming a parallel PV module as expressed in

The power output from single photovoltaic cells is moderately little (approximately 0.5 W). Photovoltaic cells are linked in parallel and series it can produce necessary voltage and power. The modules are sorted by the smallest assembly design and to produce DC power. It can be mentioned before, and then the smallest amount is obtainable from producer. Modules are combined together into panels. These panels to be related mutually expand the whole array.

The characteristic of the output voltage in PV system could be obtained as,

where

N_{s}-Number of series cell

I_{PV}-PV cell output current

Beneath partial shading conditions, TCT arrangement need to mathematically examine to find out how these conditions influence output characteristics curves. The parameters at standard test conditions, while the current and voltage of PV module are at Maximum Power Point for specific irradiance and temperature conditions.

In

SuDoKu is a logical related numerical array puzzle. This model consists of 9 3 × 3 matrix and every column, every row, and one of the 9 3 × 3 sub networks which compile the network comprises whole numbers from one to nine. The pattern of SuDoKu puzzle is shown in

The solar array, third row and nine column is physically moved to the starting row nine column but the solar array link remains in the 9^{th} row. Therefore, the physical locations of the Photo Voltaic arrays are accustomed devoid of varying the electrical links in the solar panel. Because of the electrical connection do not swap the electric formulas V and I remain identical as the Total Cross Tied arrangement.

An order(n = 9) of Magic Square View is a method of

The location of succeeding digit is determined by decreasing row digit of the preceding number by 1 and increasing the column digit of the preceding number by 1. In the same way, if the computed location of column turns in to n, it will enfold nearly to 0. If the MS previously consists of a digit at the computed location, computed column location will be decreased to 2, and the computed row location will be increased to 1.

The suggested ITV technique assigns the numbers of module reasonably for several numbers of PV modules. The electric circuit is similar but positions of the module vary with respect to the specified proportions of the solar panel.

It is a 90-degree triangle of natural numbers acquired by refilling the rows by using successive numbers, beginning from 1. Series number of row and quantity of component in the row are identical, i.e., first row has one component, and next one has two, and so on. The sum of ^{th} row is equal to n (n^{2} + 1)/2 as displayed in

The proposed PV module is formed by connecting 9 * 9 solar cells in which they are arranged in series as well as in parallel and the entire module is total cross tied connection. It looks rather easy, and the ploy used in the inverted triangle algorithm and

The inverted triangle technique is applied from third row to the eighth row in the entire module. The algorithm used in flowchart in displayed in

A 9 × 9 solar panel is interconnected in Total Cross Tied configuration and submitted to Large Wide shaded arrangement to estimate the operation of the proposed TCT-ITV method. The simulation is done for SDK, MSV and ITV-TCT pattern by MATLAB/Simulink environment. The outputs acquired are compared with MSV, SDK for the given shaded arrangement.

A solar panel is separated into 5 various sets as per the irradiance level. First set gets an irradiance of 900 W/

A solar Panel with 5 several sets based on the irradiance level is taken in to account. The first set acquires an irradiance of 900W/^{th} and 9^{th} rows are bypassed, then the maximum power is generated from the solar. However, in SuDoKu arrangement, the peak power occurs resultant to the nominal voltage of the solar panel. Furthermore, it can be supposed that the peak power generated by this configuration is 7870 W that is higher than that reached for Total Cross Tied arrangement.

The proposed technique is proven by the same 9 × 9 PV panel that is exposed to the considered shaded arrangement. The Shade dispersion using proposed ITV-TCT is shown in

An uneven shadow pattern appears in photovoltaic systems. From 81 modules, 30 modules are shaded. The shade model consists of twelve modules with 700 W/m^{2}, fourteen modules with 400 W/m^{2} and four modules with 200 W/m^{2} at standard temperature. It is realized from

String No. | S-ITV | SP-ITV | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Current(A) | Voltage (V) | LP Power (W) | PV system Maximum Power (W) | Current (A) | Voltage (V) | LP Power (W) | PV system Maximum Power (W) | |

1 | 5.63 | 136.2 | 1489 | 3421 | 5.63 | 135.8 | 1478 | 3521 |

2 | 5.63 | 137.9 | 1428 | 3782 | 5.63 | 136.7 | 1476 | 3511 |

3 | 7.26 | 159.36 | 1698 | 3766 | 7.60 | 163.36 | 1798 | 3760 |

4 | 7.26 | 152.17 | 1676 | 3723 | 7.56 | 154.17 | 1776 | 3720 |

5 | 7.26 | 142.79 | 1532 | 3673 | 6.80 | 146.79 | 1632 | 3672 |

6 | 7.59 | 151.3 | 1687 | 3760 | 7.60 | 155.3 | 1587 | 3760 |

7 | 6.23 | 140.6 | 1501 | 3652 | 6.21 | 146.6 | 1501 | 3652 |

8 | 8.21 | 172.1 | 1783 | 3872 | 8.11 | 175.3 | 1823 | 3874 |

9 | 8.01 | 170.12 | 1780 | 3871 | 8.11 | 172.12 | 1811 | 3877 |

For the configuration of SuDoKu is shown in

String No | SuDoKu | MSV | TCT-ITV | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Current(A) | Voltage (V) | LP Power(W) | PV system Maximum Power (W) | Current(A) | Voltage (V) | LP Power (W) | PV system Maximum Power (W) | Current(A) | Voltage (V) | LP Power (W) | PV system Maximum Power (W) | |

1 | 73.78 | 16.67 | 1783 | 5261 | 74.78 | 18.67 | 1823 | 7261 | 75.78 | 19.67 | 3872 | 8093 |

2 | 63.11 | 16.63 | 1780 | 5252 | 62.21 | 18.21 | 1811 | 7252 | 63.21 | 19.21 | 3871 | 8062 |

3 | 61.32 | 16.12 | 1698 | 7221 | 61.48 | 18.12 | 1798 | 7321 | 61.23 | 19.12 | 3766 | 8061 |

4 | 61.21 | 16.02 | 1676 | 4782 | 61.56 | 18.02 | 1776 | 6782 | 61.87 | 19.02 | 3723 | 8042 |

5 | 56.62 | 15.87 | 1532 | 4791 | 51.68 | 17.87 | 1632 | 6791 | 50.62 | 18.87 | 3673 | 7987 |

6 | 63.21 | 15.13 | 1687 | 4711 | 51.68 | 17.32 | 1587 | 6711 | 40.2 | 18.32 | 3760 | 7981 |

7 | 63.21 | 16.23 | 1501 | 5198 | 68.21 | 18.03 | 1501 | 7198 | 73.21 | 19.03 | 3652 | 8021 |

8 | 63.21 | 16.11 | 1636 | 5162 | 70.21 | 18.12 | 1636 | 7162 | 72.21 | 19.32 | 3711 | 8032 |

9 | 70.67 | 16.62 | 1599 | 5122 | 71.67 | 18.32 | 1599 | 7122 | 70.67 | 19.3 | 3698 | 8030 |

For the local SP-ITV peak power configuration at 1501 W. The LP point, which corresponds to the lowest peak power of 1501 W, is 146.6 V, 7.60 A. The PV system provides a maximum output for this LP point of 7331 W, and therefore the LP point of the string is the GP point of the PV system.

S-ITV | SP-ITV | SuDoKu | MSV | Proposed TCT-ITV | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Current (A) | 40.122 | 58.06 | 64.74 | 76.09 | 83.69 |

Voltage (V) | 14.7 | 15.1 | 16.6 | 18.5 | 19.8 |

Power (W) | 5890 | 6570 | 7870 | 8621 | 9765 |

It is observed that by the TCT-ITV configuration, the PV system maximum power generation is 66,000 watts, which is higher than that of the TCT configuration. It can be seen in

Maximum power | Configuration structure | Power enhancement |
---|---|---|

Indu Rani et al. (2013) | SuDoKu | 3.6 |

John Bosco (2017) | CDV-TCT | 6.38 |

Lahuen El (2018) | MSV | 7.12 |

Proposed system | ITV-TCT | 7.89 |

The simulation of 9 × 9 solar PV modules under various shading patterns with degrees of shading are performed based on Matlab/Simulink. The three standard configurations of solar PV array consisting of series(s), series-parallel (SP) and total cross-tied (TCT), recently developed SuDoKu, magic square view configuration are studied. This paper proposes ITV configuration for the arrangement of PV modules in a PV array which exhibits an improvement in PV power generation under partially shaded. The ITV configuration spreads the effect of shading over the entire PV modules and decreases the mismatch losses of modules thereby improving the produced PV power. The performance of the system is analyzed, and it is proved that the proposed technique allows better results as compared to conventional schemes. It is observed that by the TCT-ITV configuration, the PV system maximum power generation is 66,000 watts, which is higher than that of the existing topologies available in the literatures such as S, SP and TCT configuration.

The authors with a deep sense of gratitude would thank the supervisor for his guidance and constant support rendered during this research.