Software or web application security is the main objective in the era of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). Distinguishing proof of security at the initial stage produces significant results to comprehend the administration of security relics for best potential outcomes. A security alternative gives several methods and algorithms to ensure the software security. Security estimation is the vital factor in assessing, administrating, controlling security to improve the nature of security. It is to be realized that assessment of security at early stage of development helps in identifying distinctive worms, dangers, weaknesses and threats. This paper will talk about the definition and characterization of quantum computing in software security. For software security, we use different cryptography (methods or algorithms to secure our financial organizations, medical devices, military weapons, planes, ships, automobiles, navigators, etc. However, many cryptosystems are likely to collapse when the large quantum computer is developed. Recently, Google developed the

Quantum computing is a groundbreaking technology in the field of IT that can support the global efforts in addressing the security of software and the web application. Software with compromised strength is probably going to fizzle in a profoundly serious market; hence, software creating associations are focusing harder towards guaranteeing the sturdiness of their products. Software improvement life cycle contains numerous stages, for example, necessities designing, plan, coding and testing. Upkeep is viewed as the last phase of advancement [

Functionality of software can be characterized as the conditions in which programming is as yet helpful or viable. Usefulness of software ought to be strong so as to accomplish viability. Sturdiness in the software is the time-frame for which programming is giving administrations [

With the development of quantum processor, the current structure of encryption or security methods of different networks, web applications, software, financial structure of encryption, security in defense and everything that is based on computer network is at stake, the durability of software is also affected by quantum computer. The present security mechanisms in the classical computers are symmetric and asymmetric. In a symmetric approach, the same key is used to encrypt data and decrypt data. While in the asymmetric approach, different keys are used. The security is totally based on security key which is in the form of integer number as per the

The rest of the paper is structured as follows: In Section 2, the literature perused for profiling this research has been explained. In Section 3, operation of quantum has been explained in the form of qubit. Section 4 explains the software security issues in the quantum computing era. Section 5 dwells on the challenges of software security in quantum computer era and mentions the existing quantum security algorithm. Section 6 presents the conclusion of our review in quantum computing era.

Several research studies have been done on quantum computing and software security explicitly, the combined approaches are supposed to be novel and these have been mentioned in our review paper. In the last decade, the researchers focused on the development of quantum computer, the different algorithms of quantum computing to enhance the computing phenomenon. The complex algorithms of cryptography have been resolved by the quantum computing in seconds. The present security technique of classical computer and super computer security methods have collapsed in quantum computing era. Our research has specifically underlined the issues and challenges of software security in the quantum era. While profiling our research, the relevant literature sources that we referred to in particular on the software security and quantum computing have been detailed below:

Mitra et al. [

Abomhara et al. [

Ma et al. [

Zheng et al. [

The methodologies examined above give information about the security of software in quantum computing era. In the ensuing segment, we have talked about various software security contexts and quantum computing era. The concepts will be an effective base for organizing the software security more efficiently.

The present trend of the development of quantum technology predicts a progressive trajectory in future that is more likely to witness the exponential growth of quantum processor

The post quantum approach of security means that the user has few algorithms by which we can ensure the security in quantum computing era. The post quantum cryptography’s purpose is to achieve usability, flexibility without losing the confidence of the user. In future, when the quantum computer will be in existence, the present security procedure such as RSA, DSA and ECDSA will be ineffectual. For the working principle of cryptography, the developers have generated two keys: the public key and the private key [

Quantum computer makes the cryptography method obsolete. The quantum enhanced approach is the procedure of assumption in which the quanta technologies are developed to a small level and cannot break the encryption algorithm like AES, DES etc. The present cryptographic algorithms are working efficiently but the development of security in quantum era would need stronger processes. In the context of quantum enhanced scenario, the cryptography process data will be secured by the key. The quantum key distribution is the new methodology of the network encryption in which the developer uses the uncertainty principle of matter to ensure that the data cannot be interfered with by the hacker [

The approaches of quantum enabled cryptography means that the large quantum computers being developed have the computation power for breaking the current security encryption procedure. The exponential development of quantum computer needs the current cryptographic procedure upgradation. The mentioned quantum algorithm will ensure the durability and security of software. The basic difference between the classical computer and quantum computer are its operation on bit and qubits. Bits operates with 1 and 0 operation at two different time lines, while in quantum computer the qubits operate 1 and 0 at the same time by the use of superposition principle and entanglement [

Working Operation of quantum computer is based on qubit algebra. In quantum computing, the qubits shows both the states of operation 1 and 0 at the same time by the use of superposition principle and entanglement. An atmosphere of spectacular secret appends to the idea of quantum entanglement, and furthermore to the (by one way or another) related case that quantum hypothesis requires "numerous universes." Yet in the end those are, or ought to be, logical thoughts, with rational implications and solid ramifications.

Trap is frequently viewed as an interestingly quantum-mechanical marvel, however it isn't. Truth be told, it is edifying, however fairly unusual, to think about a basic non-quantum (or "old style") form of trap first. This empowers us to decipher the nuance of entanglement itself as separated from the overall peculiarity of quantum hypothesis. This means that the working photon (basic entity of matter/computing) can show both the states at the same time, as shown below.

The quantum computing is differing from the classical computer because of its basic operation which is based on Q algebra (Quantum algebra). The qubits (

The bracket notation

That shows the

The state of qubits is defined as a tensor product

The tensor product of joint state is

^{n} output. Qubits can mathematically be represented by unitary function, so the number of input is equal to the number of output qubits.

Software security is a major concern in the field of quantum computing. The rapid progress in Quantum technology will require inventive and highly efficacious approaches in cyber security domain. The encryption and decryption methods can easily be matched by the qubits combination at the same time. Few more pertinent issues are underlined below:

Google’s Sycamore Quantum Processor can calculate the 10000 year large calculation in just 200 s so the encryption key of data can be invaded easily.

The encryption of Wi-Fi can be cracked in seconds.

The development of qubits is exponential. Already 53 qubits have been developed, if we reach 2000, the security of todays encryption will be broken.

The different methods of security in quantum computing are very costly.

The different cryptographic approach and the post quantum algorithm which can break the present encryption algorithm are mentioned in

Name of encryption | Function | Present security | Quantum security |
---|---|---|---|

Symmetric | |||

Advanced encryption standard-128 | SE | 128 | 64 (Grover) |

Advanced encryption standard-256 | SE | 256 | 128 (Grover) |

Salsa-20 | SE | 256 | 128 (Grover) |

SHA-256 | HashFunction | 256 | 128 (Grover) |

SHA-3256 | HashFunction | 256 | 128 (Grover) |

Key Cryptography | |||

RSA 3072 | Encryption | 128 | Broken (Shor) |

RSA 3072 | Signature | 128 | Broken (Shor) |

DH 3072 | Key exchange | 128 | Broken (Shor) |

DSA 3072 | Signature | 128 | Broken (Shor) |

ECDH 256 | Key Exchange | 128 | Broken (Shor) |

ECDSA 256 | Signature | 128 | Broken (Shor) |

As analyzed above, it is evident that the quantum computing development progress makes the present cryptography algorithm insecure by its operational speed. This poses to be a major challenge. Few of the cryptographic procedures which can be enlisted to address these challenges are:

In context of the post quantum cryptography, this method promises to secure the data or information against the quantum computing [

The vector b1, b2…bn are known as basic lattices [

In the homomorphic encryption, without revealing the data, the data between two parties can be manipulated by anyone but cannot be revealed [

Quantum key distribution is the transmission of data known as encryption key with the help of qubits which have unique behavior as against the classical computer system [

Since the cryptographic algorithm used in cybersecurity will be ineffective with the advent of quantum computer, the researchers need to work on converse solutions to this problem. Lattice based cryptographic algorithms can be considered to be the most apt process in this regard [

Quantum computing applications are as of now developing across the globe. Different difficulties and worries around quantum computing require an exhaustive report on this subject. This paper reviewed the fundamental components of quantum computing and further investigated the capability of quantum processing to improve scientific and figuring capacities in tackling software security and durability. It is obvious that producing a completely secure framework is beyond the realm of imagination; subsequently, it can't be considered as the goal of assessing software sturdiness to be the boundaries of great and secure software. Hence, the goal is to diminish the support issue for long time workable software. Focus on strengthening the software durability from the very beginning of the development cycle will raise the degree of value in the product. In this article, we mentioned the quantum approach and software durability. The quantum safe algorithm will secure the quantum attack on present encryption security approach. However, whether it is the Lattice based quantum algorithm or any other, there can be no guarantee for foolproof security in the context of online communication. Yet, in the wake of the development of quantum computer, Lattice based quantum algorithm is decidedly an effective improvisation.

This research was supported by Taif University Researchers Supporting Project number (TURSP-2020/254), Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.