In the current circumstance, e-commerce through an online banking system plays a significant role. Customers may either buy goods from E-Commerce websites or use online banking to move money to other accounts. When a user participates in these types of behaviors, their sensitive information is sent to an untrustworthy network. As a consequence, when transmitting data from an internal browser to an external E-commerce web server using the cryptographic protocol SSL/TLS, the E-commerce web server ensures the security of the user’s data. The user should be pleased with the confidentiality, authentication, and authenticity properties of the SSL/TLS on both the user’s web browser and the remote E-commerce web server. E-Commerce web servers should choose the best SSL/TLS cipher suites for negotiating the user in order to attain such optimistic scenarios, as the cipher suite used in SSL/TLS plays an important role in securing E-Commerce web servers. The paper primarily focuses on analyzing the SSL/TLS cipher and elliptic curves. The paper also recommends the best elliptic curve cipher suites for E-Commerce and online banking servers, based on their power consumption, handshake execution time, and key exchange and signature verification time.

The internet is the most important and fundamental component of any trending technology. E commerce plays a critical role in today’s technological evolution, making significant contributions to e-shopping and online banking. Since the application is configured to access the web server via a web browser using the SSL/TLS protocol, such e-commerce applications rely on unauthorized web browsers. Confidentiality, integrity, and authentication should all be preserved in the information/communication flow between the web server and the web browser. Various cryptographic methods, which are broadly known as symmetric and asymmetric algorithms, may be used to ensure certain security parameters in the framework. Despite the fact that these algorithms are used in various OSI layers, the paper focuses on the security to be implemented in the application and transport layers, as online banking and e-shopping applications use SSL/TLS in the transport layer to migrate the most confidential data. SSL/TLS protection is achieved by combining symmetric and asymmetric algorithms. TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_256_GCM_SHA256, also known as Cipher Suite, is a common security technique for securing communication [

RFC 2246 was the first to design and describe the TLS protocol, which was called TLS 1.0 and resembled SSL 3.0 [

As shown in

The client sends the initial HELLO packet, which contains the SSL/TLS version, random bytes, cipher suites, compression algorithms, and extensions tags, in order to evaluate the handshake protocol.

After receiving the client’s encrypted HELLO packet, the server responds with a HELLO packet containing random bytes, cipher suits, compression algorithms, and extensions tags.

After sending the HELLO packet successfully, the server will send the CERTIFICATE command and the HELLO DONE packet to the client in that order.

If the server requests it, the client will give the CERTIFICATE command.

The client then generates a random pre-master secret key and sends it to the server in an encrypted format, using the same public key that was used to encrypt the CERTIFICATE.

Based on the pre-master secret key generated and shared by the client, the server and client each generate a Master secret key and a session key.

The server and client each generate a Master secret key and a session key based on the pre-master secret key created and shared by the client.

Finally, both the client and the server exchange a FINISH packet to indicate the start of record layer communication.

The record layer is responsible for managing of securely transmitting data in a tightly encrypted format. The record layer secures communication by segmenting incoming data into 64-bit, 128-bit, or 256-bit segments, depending on the symmetric algorithms (block cipher and Stream cipher algorithms) used for encryption. The record layer uses MAC algorithms to ensure the confidentiality of the data segments after receiving the encrypted segments at the receiving.

SSL/TLS protocol seems to be the most commonly used protection mechanism, and cipher suites are the most common. The Cipher suite has four main features: key exchange algorithms, authentication algorithms, encryption algorithms, and message authentication code algorithms. The Key Exchange Algorithms are responsible for secure key exchange between the sender and recipient (say Client and Server). RSA, DH, ECDH, and ECDHE are some of the most widely used key exchange algorithms in the cipher suite. RSA, DSA, and ECDSA are used in the authentication algorithms to ensure the sender and receiver’s authenticity. Encryption algorithms are used to encrypt data transmitted between a web browser and a web server using encryption algorithms such as AES and DES. Using MD5, SHA1, SHA256, SHA384, and POLY1305, the Message Authentication Code algorithm guarantees the integrity constraints on both.

SSL 3.0 Cipher suites began with the SSL_DH_RSA_EXPORT_WITH_DES40_CBC_SHA, SSL_DH_RSA_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA, and SSL_DHE_DSS_WITH_DES_CBC_SHA specific suites [^{56} combinations for the attacker [^{128}, 2^{192}, and 2^{256} combinations. However, the cipher suite in TLS 1.0 was also prone to a poodle attack as well as a BEAST attack [

POODLE (Padding Oracle On Downgraded Legacy Encryption) attack, BEAST (Browser Exploit Against SSL/TLS) attack, CRIME (Compression Ratio Info Leak Made Easy) attack, BREACH (Browser Reconnaissance And Exfiltration Via Adaptive Compression Of Hyper Text) [

In their blog, Daniel Bernstein and Tanje Lange discuss secure curves and several principles for selecting curves for use in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). Safe curves’ review of norms and official documents shows that elliptic curve discrete logarithm (ECDLP) problem security is difficult, but not ECC security. According to Daniel Bernstein and Tanje Lange, elliptic curves designed to be ECDLP safe only if the attacker does not breach ECDLP’s protection by producing incorrect results for certain unusual curve points, leaking secret data when the input is not a curve point, and leaking secret data through branch and cache timing attacks. As a result, the authors claim that none of these requirements do a good job of ECC security, which is applicable to ECDLP security. The author proposed new elliptic curves, which achieve improved protection and efficiency in ECC and ECDLP, based on a notable problem in ECC security, as shown in

Different elliptic curves from previous standards were evaluated by Daniel Bernstein and Tanje Lange based on the following security conditions, curve parameters, ECDLP security, and ECC security. The secure curve security specifications are divided into three categories: a) Basic curve parameters, b) ECDLP security, and c) ECC security.

Curve | Parameters | ECDLP Security | ECC security | |||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Safe | Field | Equ | Base | Rho | Transfer | Disc | Rigid | Ladder | Twist | Complete | ind | |

NIST P-256 | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | N | N | Y | N | N |

Cruve25519 | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y | Y |

TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 and TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_ 128_GCM_SHA256 are the most common cipher suites now used in e-commerce and online banking. A series of key exchange algorithms, authentication algorithms, encryption algorithms, and MAC algorithms were used to create this. TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 was the first cipher suite in the TLS 1.2 cipher suite. The evolution of cipher suites from the simple adapted cipher suite is depicted in

For their hidden session key encryption, SSL and TLS used the RSA algorithm when they first began protecting the web browser and web server. When selecting a powerful or safe prime number, this RSA uses a modular exponential approach in which the factors are difficult to identify. This is due to the fact that when selecting a strong prime number, the bits of representation begin at 2048 bits for the lowest strong prime number, ensuring greater confidentiality. While 2048 bits is a good number for ensuring privacy, it can be hacked with enough effort. As a result, attempts were made to enhance confidentiality at this stage of leakage. As a result, RSA changed the lowest strong prime number representation to 3072 [

In the key exchange component, RSA was replaced by Diffie Hellmen (DH) to ensure the authentication of the key exchange between the web browser and the web server [

Given the shortcomings of previous cipher suites, especially the time and memory requirements, TLS 1.2 was designed to include Elliptic curve cryptography, which included elliptic curve (EC) in their cipher suites for improved security in e-commerce applications, as shown in

The basic ECDH is based on DH with a static key exchange. When comparing ECDH and ECDHE, ECHDE generates unique keys for each session, and the same key is never generated twice. The ECDHE has a drawback known as the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP), which TLS 1.1 failed to satisfy [^{80}. As all the current e-commerce application and online banking servers rely on elliptic curves, this paper deals in analyzing the various elliptic curves and their implications.

An Elliptic curve, E over a value k can be defined as follows [

1. A non-singular projective plain curve E over k of degree 3, together with a point O belongs to E_{(k).}

2. O is requires as a point of modulation.

3. A non-singular projective plain curve over k of the form as specified as

4. A non-singular projective curve E of genus 1 together with the point of O belongs to E_{k}

Any elliptic curve over a finite field can be classified as an elliptic curve over GF (P) or an elliptic curve over GF (2m). Three subcategories of elliptic curves can be formed using the standard elliptic curve equation: Weierstrass curve

where

where

where d(1-d) is non-zero respectively.

In order to provide more security in e-commerce and online banking servers while also requiring less processing time, CPU cycles, and memory bandwidth, the applications must choose a better elliptic curve based on the properties of the three curves mentioned above. According to the NIST standard, any point of order n can be used as the starting point. A sample base point G is given for each curve (Gx, Gy). In light of this definition, users may wish to select their own base points in order to maintain cryptographic separation.

P= 2^{224}(2^{32}-1) + 2^{192} + 2^{96}_{P} defined by: |

Due to the various parameters in curve secp256r1, e-commerce applications now typically append SECP256r1 or NIST P256 in a random prime field curve that was built from the base of a short Weierstrass curve that relies on elliptic curve over GF (P).

Using the Montgomery ladder and the NIST P256 curve (secp256r1), we can perform fast scalar multiplication and addition. Pollards Rho can achieve this SECG256R1 curve, but it is 2^{128} times more challenging. Reliable internet transmission using the TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA cipher suite for key exchange and authentication using P256 or Secp256r1. The e-commerce framework and web browser should drift away from this normal curve. Most webservers and web browsers that use TLS 1.3 use Curve 25519 to perform key exchange in security protocols with maximum efficiency. The curve uses the prime field of this curve is ^{200}, while curve X25519 is 2^{128}.

The output of various elliptic curve cipher suites that help forward secrecy is examined in this section. The following elements were used to perform and test the experiments for different elliptic curves:

a. Energy consumption on both client/server

b. Handshake completion time between web browser and web server

c. CPU cycles/operations of various elliptic curve operations

d. Operations/seconds for elliptic curve key exchange and signature verification

Popular elliptic curves that were used in E-commerce and online banking servers are collected and tabulated in

NO | CIPHER SUITES | KEY EXCHANGE CURVE | SIGNATURE VERIFICATION | FORWARD SECRECY | Cipher suite |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | TLS_ECDHE_RSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 | secp256r1 | RSA 3072 | YES | TLS 1.2 |

2 | TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 | secp256r1 | secp256r1 | YES | TLS 1.2 |

3 | TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_ AES_128_GCM_SHA256 | Curve25519 | Ed25519 | YES | TLS 1.2 |

4 | TLS_AES_128_GCM_SHA256 | Curve25519 | Ed25519 | YES | TLS1.3 |

The evaluation was carried out using the new openssl and libsodium test beds, as well as the various elliptic curves used in TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3 cipher suites, as shown in

The goal of the research was to determine the amount of energy used by the client and server during initial data transmission during elliptic curve key exchange and signature verification. The effects of various elliptic curve handshake methods, as well as their power consumption, are shown in ^{128}.

The number of CPU cycles spent on different elliptic curves used to exchange the key between the web browser and the web server are shown in

The product of handshake completion time of various elliptic curves used in TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3 cipher suites is shown in ^{128}, curve25519/Ed25519 performs better. ECDHE/EdDSA also performs well in both TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3 cipher suites, according to the results.

For various elliptic curves used in TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3 cipher suites,

The best type of elliptic curve to choose, computations used for the curves, and base point to fix on curves for better security results in e-commerce applications were all investigated in this paper. Standard Elliptic curves are used in e-commerce applications, such as 1) curves over prime fields GF(P) –P-192, P-224,P-256,P-384,P-521. 3) Curve25519/Ed25519 2) Secp256r1. Since bulk encryption (symmetric cipher) currently operates only on AES 128 and the bit values specify better application protection, Secp256r1 and Curve25519 is the prime curve that is commonly used in most e-commerce and online banking. Also, at 2^{128}, the curves Secp256r1 and Curve25519 will provide better security against Pollard’s Rho method, but bulk encryption (symmetric cipher) will use AES 128. When it comes to curves, since prime curves are faster on general-purpose CPUs and use a Giant integer multiplier circuit, the Montgomery curve is the most recently used curve for SSL/TLS, and it provides better security 2^{128}. The Montgomery curves X25519 and secp256r1 are considered the fastest curves in ECC since they compute the points on the EC using the Montgomery ladder (constant time computation) rather than the point multiplication method used in the short Weierstrass curve. As it takes the form of a Montgomery curve, like Montgomery ladder, the Twisted Edwards curve, such as Ed25519, can be considered one of the fastest curves (mixed addition and mixed differential addition). After evaluating the results based on the above elliptic curves, it was determined that the curve25519/Ed25519 outperforms all other curves used in most E-commerce and online banking servers in TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3 cipher suites in the performed and evaluated results. As a result, curve25519/Ed25519 is recommended as one of the best elliptic curves in the TLS 1.2 and TLS 1.3 cipher suites used in E-commerce and online banking servers.